Inter cellular circulation.

These accumulated minerals in seaweed can be loosely considered as primary metabolites. The accumulated minerals, even though they are not produced by the seaweeds, are concentrated against the osmotic gradient to cause a much higher concentration of each mineral inside the seaweed cells and intercellular spaces compared to the surrounding seawater. The use of water equilibrium mechanics to move materials in and out of their cells in this case algae or seaweed. It is no accident that seaweeds can concentrate metal cat-ions and other elements many times their respective concentrations in seawater and within there environment ( Sea water) they have almost unlimited access to mineral resources unavailable to most land plants and animals.

When vertebrates live in the sea, even at about 60ppb, there is a constant reliable source of minerals like iodine for example. Since some vertebrates left the sea, obtaining enough iodine has been a challenge to their descendants, including mankind. This iodine is used in thyroid hormones, which control all fetal development, postnatal growth, and ongoing daily body metabolism. In fact; no iodine, no vertebrate life.

Since no land plants have a need for iodine, their taking it in from roots or leaves may be incidental. Only a few land plants are reliable or even adequate iodine sources unless consumed in large quantities as is the case by large herbivores. Plants grown proximal to the marine environment and those deliberately fertilized with seaweeds can accumulate enough iodine to provide adequate dietary supplies for herbivores and humans. Potatoes, garlic and other root crops are the best accumulators and good dietary sources of plant-based iodine supplies.

Eating 2-4 grams of most dried, un-rinsed seaweeds will provide the RDA of 100-150 micrograms.

Lack of iodine can cause developmental structural and neural fetal abnormalities collectively called cretinism. This condition, directly as a result of low maternal iodine supplies, is difficult to correct postpartum, if at all. The treatment is adequate maternal iodine consumption from the motherís initial beginning as an egg in her maternal grandmother. In fact, that means treating the problem 2 generations before a particular pregnancy. Maternal iodine supplies can be monitored by maternal urine testing and any deficiencies immediately corrected by adding dietary iodine. Mammalian fetal iodine need is about three times per unit body weight of the mother.

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